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 Waterproof concrete

Waterproof concrete

Waterproof concrete 



 Waterproof concrete is a building material obtained by special technology, which basically contains components of classical concrete. To impart water resistance, substances of various nature are introduced into its composition, leading to compaction of the structure or the formation of hydrophobic films.

  The basis of waterproof concrete


 Portland cement or quick-hardening, self-expanding compositions are usually used as a binder in concrete. The function of a fine filler is performed by sand, and coarse gravel, crushed stone, or industrial waste [1]. The ratio of binder to filler is by weight from 1: 11.6 to 1: 3.6 for grades M100 and M450, respectively. The ratio of sand to gravel ranges from 1: 1.5 for compositions of lower strength to 1: 2.2 for the most durable concrete

  Reasons for passing water through the concrete layer

 A branched pore system is the main way moisture penetrates through a seemingly impermeable material. The increase in porosity occurs as a result of excess or lack of water in the initial solution. Excess water leads to the presence in the hardened mass of droplets that have not reacted. Over time, they evaporate, and in their place remain microscopic voids - pores.

 The lack of water reduces the plasticity of the solution, as a result of which the conglomerate is formed in violation of the integrity. Low mobility does not allow concrete to compact and reduces not only moisture resistance, but also strength. The porosity associated with insufficient compaction of the mixture refers to defects in the concrete coating. the optimal water content in the solution depends on the proportions of the binder and filler. During the course of hardening reactions, it requires about 25% by weight of the binder (cement).
 To obtain maximum ductility during construction add 40-70% of water The presence of cracks allows moisture to pass through the concrete slab. Their appearance and development is caused by several reasons: shrinkage of concrete during the hardening process.

For classical compositions (cement, sand, gravel and water) this process is inevitable; freezing and thawing of free moisture in concrete. When freezing, the volume of ice formed exceeds the volume of pores or cracks and leads to their expansion; large alternating loads observed with a significant mass of construction and unstable soil.

  Approaches to increasing the water resistance of a concrete conglomerate


Add plasticizes to improve work ability The action of such additives is to increase the plasticity of the solution and high-quality filling of the form, limited by form work. At the same time, there is a decrease in the content of excess moisture, which promotes pore formation. Note: ductility is measured by assessing cone settlement. Its initial shape is given when concrete is filled with a standard cone-shaped work piece. After filling, the molding cone is slowly lifted and the difference between its height and the height of the concrete cone settled under gravity is measured

 1-Plasticizes are added in an amount of from 0.1 to 3.0% by weight. They are divided into 3 groups, consisting mainly of surface-active substances (attractants)

 2-highly effective (plasticizes) - increase the draft of the cone from 2-4 cm to 20 cm or more (products of melamine supplementation and aromatics suffocation followed by condensation with formaldehyde); highly plasticizing - increase the sediment to 14-19 cm (alkali metal sulfonamides); - slightly plasticizing - the growth of sediment reaches 8 cm (starch, organisational liquids, animal glue).

 3-Adding components to fill pores and cracks This approach has become widespread in the process of preparing a viscous concrete mixture and waterproofing already hardened material. The essence of the method is the introduction of inorganic metal salts into the composition of concrete — ferric chloride, sodium silicate and potassium silicate, calcium nitrate, etc. One of the most effective non-commercial preparations is calcium nitrate (calcium nitrate) . Its addition to concrete in an amount of 0.5-1% maximizes water resistance and ultimate strength.

 4-The introduction of hydrophobic additives Alkaline salts of higher acids (ole ate or separate of sodium, calcium, zinc, etc.) and silicone fluids are used as hydrophobic components. The content of these substances is small and is usually 0.15-1% by weight of the binder

  Waterproof concrete based on expanding and tensile cement

 Concrete is identified in a separate group, the binder of which partially or completely consists of calcium illuminates. A feature of such concrete is a quick setting time, ranging from several minutes to 10-12 hours do-it-yourself waterproofing

When the expanding illuminate cement hardens, not shrinkage occurs, but expansion, which prevents the formation of cracks. The use of stress cement consisting of 65-75% Portland cement, 13-20% alumina cement and 6-10% gypsum, allows not only high water resistance, but also significant strength of the reinforced concrete structure
The expansion of the concrete mass during setting significantly stretches and strains the reinforcement, increasing the overall strength.

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