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building super structure,shell,core,roof

building super structure,shell,core,roof

Superstructure

The superstructure is the portion of a building which is constructed above the ground level and it serves the purpose of structure’s intended use. It includes columns, beams, slab upwards including all finishes, door and window schedules, flooring, roofing, lintels, and parapets.


superstructure is an upward extension of an existing structure above a baseline called Ground Level in general and it usually serves the purpose of the structure's intended use.
In Buildings, the portion of the structure that is above ground level that receives the live load is referred to as Superstructure. The superstructure of a building is the part that is entirely above its foundation or basement.
Mentioned below are the basic components a building’s superstructure :
  1. Roof
  2. Parapet
  3. Lintels
  4. Slab
  5. Beams
  6. Columns
  7. Walls
  8. Floor
  9. Stair
ROOF

roof is a structure forming the upper covering of a building or other shelter. Its primary purpose is generally to provide protection from the elements, but it may also contribute to safetysecurity, privacy, insulation, and so on.
Roofs may have openings or windows within them to allow light into the buildings, as well as providing, accessventilationviews, and so on. They also frequently include other features such as chimneys, communications infrastructurebuilding servicesdrainagelightingaccess routes, and so on.
PARAPET
Parapet walls are a part of the long history of architecture, and are still often used today. Throughout time there have been plenty of purposes, and just as many materials, for this type of wall extension. You may be considering adding one to your commercial or residential structure, or simply need quality repairs
Lintels
A lintel is, like we mentioned, a type of structural support used to help support the load of windows and doors. They’re installed flat, on the top of and bottom of the structure and can be made from many different types of materials. The main purpose of lintels is to provide increased strength for weak areas in a structure, which is why replacing or repairing ones that are broken, is so important.
Slab

A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings, consisting of a flat, horizontal surface made of cast concrete. Steel-reinforced slabs, typically between 100 and 500 mm thick, are most often used to construct floors and ceilings, while thinner mud slabs may be used for exterior paving 
In many domestic and industrial buildings, a thick concrete slab supported on foundations or directly on the subsoil, is used to construct the ground floor. These slabs are generally classified as ground-bearing or suspended. A slab is ground-bearing if it rests directly on the foundation, otherwise the slab is suspended. For multi-storey buildings, there are several common slab designs
There are four different types of concrete Flat Slabs:-
  1. Slab without drop and column without column head.
  2. Slab with drop and column without column head.
  3. Slab without drop and column with column head.
  4. Slab with drop and column with column head.
BEAM

     beam is a horizontal structural member in a building to resist the lateral loads applied to the beams axis. The structural member which resists the forces laterally or transversely applied to the (beam) axis is called beam.

    In it, the loads are acting transversely to the longitudinal axis, which produces the shear forces and bending moment. The lateral load acting on beams are the main cause bending of the beam. They are responsible to transfer a load from the slab to the column. The load distribution pattern is,

    TYPES OF BEAM

    1: Simply supported beams


    2: Continuous beams


    4: cantilever beams


    5: Overhanging beam


    COLUMNS

    column is a vertical structural member intended to transfer a compressive load. For example, a column might transfer loads from a ceilingfloor or roof slab or from a beam, to a floor or foundations.
    Columns are typically constructed from materials such as stonebrickblockconcretetimbersteel, and so on, which have good compressive strength.

    Columns are classified into four types:-

    1. Based on Shape
    2. Based on a type of reinforcement
    3. Based on type of loading
    4. Based on slenderness ratio


    Square or Rectangular Column:-


    They are generally used in the construction of buildings., which are common in practice; these types of column are provided only if the shape of the room is a square or rectangular shape.

    Circular column:-



    They are specially designed columns, they are mostly used in piling and elevation of the buildings. Why we use it in elevation? In order to avoid edges

    L- Type Column:-

    They are generally used in the corners of the boundary wall and has same features of a rectangular or square column. These kind of columns are very less used.

    V- Type Column:-

    As a name itself, it showcasing the column is in V shape and generally used if the shape of the room is in trapezoidal. As it requires more amount of concrete when compared to the other columns.
    load the column:
    1. Dissolve the sample in the minimum amount of solvent (5–10 drops). ...
    2. Using a pipette or syringe with a thick needle, drip the sample directly onto the top of the silica. ...
    3. Once the entire sample has been added, allow the column to drain so that the solvent level touches the top of the silica
    Walls
    The purposes of the walls in buildings are to support roofs, floors, and ceilings; to enclose a space as part of the building envelope along with a roof to give buildings form, and to provide shelter and security. In addition, the wall may house various types of utilities such as electrical wiring or plumbing
    Walls are usually of two types:
    1. Load bearing walls
    2. Partition walls
    Load bearing walls are usually built with greater thickness (usually 9″ & above), and it can be of brick or stone masonry, RCC etc. They are usually built to take up the loads directly from slabs or beams. As in our old buildings, there were no columns, instead of them, thicker walls are made.
    On the other hand, partition walls are constructed just for the purpose of partitioning a big space, this walls are smaller in thickness(usually around 4″
    Floor
    floor is the bottom surface of a room or vehicle. Floors vary from simple dirt in a cave to many-layered surfaces made with modern technology. Floors may be stone, wood, bamboo, metal or any other material that can support the expected load.
    The levels of a building are often referred to as floors, although a more proper term is story

    Functional Requirements of Floors in Building Construction

    Following are the functional requirements of floors in building:
    • Strength and stability
    • Resistance to weather and ground moisture
    • Durability and free from maintenance
    • Fire resistance
    • Resistance to passage of heat
    • Resistance to passage of sound
    Stair
    tairs give access from floor to floor. The space/room housing stairs is called staircase. Stairs consists of a number of steps arranged in a single flight or more number of flights.

    Types of stairs in building

    1.Straight stair
    2. Half turn stairs
    3. Circular stairs
    4. Three quarter turn stairs
    5. Spiral stairs
    6. Bifurcated stairs







    STRAIGHT STAIRCASE 



    A straight staircase can be defined as one having a single, straight flight of stairs like a ladder that connects two levels or floors in a building. A straight staircase is one of the oldest and most common types of staircases found in buildings.
    Half turn stairs

    The half-turn staircase—or 2/4—is a variant of the quarter-turn staircase. It consists of two straight flights with two 90° turns. With this type of staircase, from the base to the top, the steps and the person on them turn 180°

    Quarter-turn staircases


    A quarter-turn staircase consists of two straight rows of stairs and a one quarter turn of 90°. With this type of staircase, from the base to the top, the steps and the person on them turn 90°.
    Spiral stairs

    The spiral staircase, also known as a screw, helical, corkscrew, or cockle staircase, is a model with an open stairwell (hollow newel) in which the treads go around a central pillar or shaft, following a circular or polygonal plan
     Bifurcated stairs

    This type of stair is commonly used in public buildings at their entrance hall. The stair has a wider flight at the bottom, which bifurcates into two narrower flights, one turning to the left and the other to the right, at the landing. It may be either of newel type with a newel post as shown in figure 9 below left side or of geometrical type, as shown in the right portion of the figure with continuous stringer and hand rails






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